Biological Soil Crust (BSC) generates a surprising 25% of the planet's naturally fixed nitrogen outside the oceans.  TerraDerm technology seeds BSC on a  terrestrial scale         

TerraDerm is still in Development yet here's what we know:
  - The availability of fixed nitrogen governs how fast plants can grow, as much as water
  - Plant photosynthesis governs how fast carbon dioxide is absorbed from the atmosphere
  - BSC is responsible for producing 80% of the fixed nitrogen for plant life on arid lands
  - 40% of the earth's landmass is arid and supports almost 50% of agriculture and grazing
  - Arid lands have a surprisingly large role in climate change and food production

Introduction to TerraDerm:
   - Seeding of Large Areas with Biological Soil Crust Started Formulation (IEEE Published Paper)
   - Seeding of Large Areas with Biological Soil Crust Started Formulation (Presentation Slide Deck)

Introduction to Biological Soil Crust:

Biological Soil Crust (BSC) Ecological Role:
   - Effects of Soil Crust Disturbance
(Belnap Presentation)
   - Ecological Role of Biological Soil Crusts (USGS Presentation) 
   - Cyanobacteria in Biological Soil Crusts of India (Tirkey Paper)
   - USGS Recoverability and Vulnerability of Desert Ecosystems (USGS Project Site)
   - Impacts of Biological Soil Crust Disturbance and Composition on C and N Loss from Water Erosion (Barger Paper)   
 

Contribution of BSC to the Global Carbon and Nitrogen Cycle:
   - Have Desert Researchers Discovered a Hidden Loop in the Carbon Cycle? (Yan 2008 Research)
   - Carbon sequestration in desert ecosystem (Schlesinger 2009 Paper)
   - Contribution of cryptogamic covers to the global cycles of carbon and nitrogen (Elbert 2012 ScienceDaily)
   -
Directional climate change and potential reversal of desertification in arid and semiarid ecosystems (Peters 2012 Paper)

Reseeding Technology, Research and Results:
   - Feasibility of cyanobacterial inoculation for biological soil crusts formation in desert area (Wang Paper)
   - Biological Soil Crust Rehabilitation in Theory and Practice: An Underexploited Opportunity
(Bowker Paper)
   - Reseeding Soil using Cyanobacteria in China (2012 Video)
   - Aerial Reforestation Technology (Illustration of proposed seedling delivery process)
   - Dry Land Erosion Control using Photosynthetic Nitrogen-fixing Microorganisms (Flynn Patent)
   - Supra-Cellular Ropes Enabled Filamentous Cyanobacteria to Colonize Highly Erodible Substrates (Ferran Paper)

BSC and Desertification Information Resources:  
   - Global Dynamics of Dust (United Nations Environmental Program 2013)
   - USGS Soil Crust
(Directory Site)
   - Soil Erosion: a Food and Environmental Threat (Pimentel Paper)
   - Desertification Dimensions (Wikipedia) (Wikipedia)
   - United Nations Convention to Combat Desertification  (UNCCD Home Site)




 

Restoring Soils on a Global Scale

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